Conditional logic in Power Query

Writing a simple if statement in Power Query’s M expression language is straightforward. Using an Excel table called Input that contains a single value as the starting point:


The following query shows how to use an if … then … else statement to test whether the value from the table is equal to 5:


    Source = Excel.CurrentWorkbook(){[Name="Input"]}[Content],

    InputValue = Source{0}[Input],

    IfStatement = if InputValue=5 

                    then "The number is five" 

                    else "The number is not five"



What about more complex conditional logic? The M language doesn’t include anything like a case statement, but it is possible to write the equivalent of one quite easily.

Here’s an example of a simple case statement:


    Source = Excel.CurrentWorkbook(){[Name="Input"]}[Content],

    InputValue = Source{0}[Input],

    CaseValues = {

                    {1, "First"},

                    {2, "Second"},

                    {3, "Third"},

                    {4, "Fourth"},

                    {5, "Fifth"},

                    {InputValue, "Else condition"}


    SimpleCase = List.First(List.Select(CaseValues, each _{0}=InputValue)){1}



This works as follows:

  • The CaseValues step defines a list containing six items, each of which is itself a list containing a number and some text. The number is the value to compare to the input value, and the text is what will be returned if the number does match the input value.
  • The last item in the CaseValues list contains the input value, so this will be returned where the input value matches none of the preceding values
  • The SimpleCase step uses List.Select() to filter the list in CaseValues so that only the items in the list where the input value matches the number in the list.
  • Since List.Select itself returns a list, this list is then passed to List.First() to get the first item in the list returned by List.Select (there should only be one item in the list in this particular query), and then {1} returns the text from that item. This is the output of the query.

You can write a searched case expression in a very similar way, by declaring functions that return boolean values instead of using numbers as follows:


    Source = Excel.CurrentWorkbook(){[Name="Input"]}[Content],

    InputValue = Source{0}[Input],

    CaseValues = {

    { (x)=>x<10, "Less than 10"},

    { (x)=>x<20, "Less than 20"},

    { (x)=>x<30, "Less than 30"},

    { (x)=>x<40, "Less than 40"},

    { (x)=>x<50, "Less than 50"},

    { (x)=>true, "Else condition"}


    SimpleCase = List.First(List.Select(CaseValues, each _{0}(InputValue))){1}




In this query the CaseValues step contains a list of lists, where each item in the list consists of list containing a function and a text value. List.Select calls each function and only returns the items where the function returns true, and finally the text from the first item that List.Select returns is the output of the query.

You can download the sample workbook here.

30 thoughts on “Conditional logic in Power Query

    • Chris,

      That’s very clever! I use stacked else ifs, but that’s not as cool as your solution. For example, as a custom function, stacking else ifs would look like:

      Source = (x)=>
      if x<10 then "Less than 10"
      else if x<20 then "Less than 20"
      else if x<30 then "Less than 30"
      else if x<40 then "Less than 40"
      else if x<50 then "Less than 50"
      else "Greater than or equal to 50"

      • I’m prepared to admit that this is a bit *too* clever – and that the stacked ifs is probably more maintainable – but this was as much about learning what’s possible in M as solving a real problem.

      • Performance might be better with stacked else ifs because you avoid multiple function calls. However, my takeaway from your post is, as you said – learning what’s possible in M to solve real problems. The pattern looks like something that can be adapted for other scenarios. It’s ironic when I think that I started using M to fill what I thought were gaps in PQ, and I’ve learned much more than I would have if those gaps weren’t there. I hope to post some of these solutions when I figure out an appropriate outlet.

  1. I just had a case where I had this Chinese textual column (number of CPU cores) I wanted to make numerical. I used the following approach using List.ReplaceMatchingItems() after looking for a way to do a switch statement in M, which seems somewhat similar to your approach, if probably less flexible:

    InsertedCustom = Table.ExpandListColumn(Table.AddColumn(ChangedType, “cores”, each List.ReplaceMatchingItems ({[核心数]}, {{“单核心”, 1},{“双核心”, 2},{“四核心”, 4}})), “cores”)

    The original column just contained string values while List.ReplaceMatchingItems() required a list, so I first had to cast the column value to a list (-> {[核心数]} ), then cast the result back to a regular non-list value, hence the unfortunate Table.ExpandListColumn(). Too bad it doesn’t just work with non-lists, but as a one-liner it’s fair enough for my purposes here.

  2. Hi Chris! Thank you for your excellent posts about Power Query. I look forward to buy your book when it will be updated.

    I also have a question today about some conditional logic which is difficult to solve with my current knowledge of M.

    The case is something like:

    Brand1 blank blank
    blank Category1 blank
    blank blank SKU1
    Brand2 blank blank
    blank Category2 blank
    blank blank SKU2

    So I need something which can understand if value in the first column isn’t blank and copy value to the same row in column 2 but from second down row in column 2. And then for column 3 also.

    Brand1 Category1 SKU1
    blank Category1 SKU1
    blank blank SKU1
    Brand2 Category2 SKU2
    blank Category2 SKU2
    blank blank SKU2

    Then I will be able to use just fill down for all column to get the result:

    Brand1 Category1 SKU1
    Brand1 Category1 SKU1
    Brand1 Category1 SKU1
    Brand2 Category2 SKU2
    Brand2 Category2 SKU2
    Brand2 Category2 SKU2

      • If I use Fill Down and then Up here, then I have a problem which you can see below:

        Brand1 Category1 SKU1
        Brand1 Category1 SKU1
        Brand1 Category1 SKU1
        Brand2 Category1 SKU1
        Brand2 Category2 SKU2
        Brand2 Category2 SKU2

        First row is ok, but then Category1 dropped to the Brand2 where it shouldn’t be. If I use Fill Up first, then Category2 will be in the Brand1’s row.

        Actually I realized that I don’t need it anymore due to specific properties of my data…

        But it’s still actual for the future what would you do in that situation?

      • Sorry for the late reply, I’ve been very busy over the last few days. This is an interesting problem, but I think it is easy to solve. You load the data in as originally shown, then do a fill down on Category and Brand. The important final step, though, is to filter out all but the rows that originally had a SKU on. Here’s the code:

        Source = Excel.CurrentWorkbook(){[Name=”Table3″]}[Content],
        #”Filled Down” = Table.FillDown(Source,{“Brand”}),
        #”Filled Down1″ = Table.FillDown(#”Filled Down”,{“Category”}),
        #”Filtered Rows” = Table.SelectRows(#”Filled Down1″, each ([SKU] null))
        #”Filtered Rows”

      • Thanks Chris! I already did exactly like this. =) Luckily I don’t need rows where SKU is BLANK but what is I’d need them? Miguel found and excellent solution and I still trying to figure out how it works… It’s on the link below.

  3. Ooh, this M language is tough…

    Sorry if I’m too bothering you…

    Is it possible also in Power Query to do Fill Down function only for columns that *have* text in a first or second row. I don’t know which rows is it. So I need condition like:

    1) Take table
    2) Find columns that don’t have *null* in a first row or in a second row.
    3) Fill down those columns.

  4. The problem is that I don’t know how to do the second step here.

    Theoretically we have a Table.SelectColumns function but how to write it with condition?

  5. Hey guys,
    I have struggling with this for ages now.

    I want to check if a cell in on each rows contains a value from an Excel table.
    Let’s say I have these rows with domains: etc.

    Then, I want to have a column saying Yes or No if “ebay” or “amazon” or “….” is found on each row. Thse values are stored in standard Excel table outside PowerQuery.

    Yes, I can do multiple if Text.Contains… but this is not very user friendly when the list of values to check is expanded frequently.

    Any ideas?


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